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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection because of microbes, which cannot be seen without a microscope. Most of the cases of UTIs occur because of bacteria, some because of fungus and in rare cases by viruses. A human urinary tract is made of kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra, this infection can happen anywhere in the urinary tract,

Causes & Reasons
  • Poor hygiene
  • Kidney stones
  • Incomplete treatment of previous UTI
  • Urinary tract obstructions or blockages, as enlarged prostate or urethral stricture
  • Poorly controlled diabetes
  • Abnormal urinary structure from birth like VUR, PU valve, mega ureter etc
  • Weakened immunity.

Symptoms of UTI depend on that which part of urinary tract has been affected, however, some symptoms are the following

  • burning urination
  • Urgency of urination
  • Bloody urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Urine having a color of cola or tea
  • Strong odor in urine
  • Pelvic pain in women
  • Rectal pain in men

Symptoms may include chills, fever, nausea, and vomiting in case of upper tract UTI, this infection affect the kidneys, if bacteria move from infected kidneys into blood, it can cause dangerously low blood pressure, shock, and death.

How we can evaluate (Investigation)

If you are facing a repetition of UTI, then abnormalities or obstruction should be checked, here are some examinations

  • Ultrasound
  • Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
  • Cystoscopy
  • Computerized tomography (CT scan)

In the case of upper tract UTI, complete blood count (CBC) and blood cultures and urine test. Blood culture test makes confirm that infection has not spread to the bloodstream.

Treatment Options

Treatment of UTIs depends on the cause, it has to be decided before treatment that which type of infection patient has. In most of the cases, bacteria are the cause;in this case antibiotics are prescribed by urologists. In other cases, viruses or fungi are the cause then respectively antiviral medicines and antifungal medicines are given to patients.