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A man’s fertility depends on the quantity and quality of sperm. If the number of sperm or quality of sperm is low then pregnancy could be difficult or sometimes impossible. Male infertility is diagnosed when reproductive problems have been found in the male. Infertility is a widespread problem, one in five infertile couples, problems were found in the male partner. One in 20 men have the low count of sperm and one in 1000 men has no sperm in his ejaculation.

Cause or Reasons

Male infertility is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport. Through medical testing, the doctor may be able to find the cause of the problem.

  • Two third of men have a problem with making sperm in testes
  • Lower number of sperm or sperm that are made do not work properly
  • Varicocele-it affect to quantity and quality of sperm
  • Sperm transport problem
  • Blockage in the tubes
  • Low levels of hormones in the pituitary gland which act on testes
  • Sperm antibodies

There are various other reasons related to sperm production, blockage of sperm transport, erection or ejaculation problem, hormonal problem and sperm antibodies.


Generally, it is very difficult to catch the problem with naked eyes. There are no obvious signs of infertility as intercourse, erection and ejaculation all seem normal, quantity and appearance of ejaculated semen look fine, so medical tests are needed to find out a man’s infertility.

How we can evaluate it (Investigation)
  • Male infertility could be a sign of an undiagnosed health problem as testosterone deficiency or testicular cancer.
  • Infertility diagnosis involves a medical history and physical examination with the semen analysis so that number, shape, and movement of sperm could be checked.
  • Blood tests also can describe a level of hormones which control sperm production or for genetic testing
  • Testicular biopsies or testicular ultrasound are also options.
Treatment Options

Varicocelectomy - Varicocele surgery helps to increase number of sperm and quality of sperms.

ICSI - Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), is a form of IVF, where a single sperm is placed directly to each egg by piercing outer covering of the egg. This technique is helpful for those who have poor sperm production. In the process, sperm is collected from semen or removed carefully from testis or epididymis. ICSI is effective to give pregnancies even in the case of fewer sperm production, as after fertilization the resulting embryos are placed into woman’s uterus.